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Chemistry acids, bases and salts reactions of acids and bases

This topic will discuss: Inorganic chemistry acid base reactions, ap chemistry acid base reactions, chemistry precipitation reactions, what do acid base reactions produce, and hydrocyanic acid and sodium hydroxide reaction.

Acid–base reaction: is a reaction in which an acid or acidic radical of a molecule receive two lone pair of electrons from another basic radical of another molecule to produce another neutral molecule and water molecules.

Applications of acid base reaction:
Acid-base reaction sometimes called neutralization reaction and used in large scale industrial process as in water plants, and adequate quantity of sodium hydroxide added to produced water to adjust the PH of water.

Reaction involving acids and bases involving precipitation reactions in which the salt produced is settled or precipitated in the bottom of the chemical container, the precipitation reaction may be used in industry to produce salts or in chemical industries to produce several chemicals.

pH Scale:
This is a scale that runs from 0 to 14. Substances with a pH below 7 are acidic. Substances with pH above 7 are basic. And those with pH 7 are neutral.

Gilbert N. Lewis in 1923 was advise a new definition of acid and base after many approaches to define each one since the first one by French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, circa 1776.

In this example:
HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)

Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide in an aqueous medium to produce sodium chloride with a quantity of water.
"HCL" dissociated in the solution medium into "H" ions with positive charge sign and "Cl" ions with negative charge sign, on the same way; "NaCl" dissociated into one cation "Na" and one anion "OH".

According to lewis postulates of acid-base theory
The acid radical is "H" and the base radical is "OH".
"OH" anion have two unpaired or unshared electrons in the outershell of "OH" orbitals.
"OH" unpaired electrons donated to "H" and a covalent bond forming the "H2O" water molecule.
The same will happen: "Cl" donate two unshared electrons to "Na" to produce "NaCl" sodium chloride, Lewis called the produced molecule after reaction between acid and base the "Salt".

By study another reaction does not contain "H, OH" ions:
this example: reaction of silver and ammonia in the formation of an ammonia–silver complex. (Adducts involving metal ions are referred to as co-ordination compounds or complexes)

Ag++ 2 :NH3 → [H3N:Ag:NH3]+
Silver ions act as acid and ammonia lone pair of electrons make ammonia as a base.

Hydrocyanic acid + sodium hydroxide reaction:
HCN + NaOH (aq) --> NaCN (aq) + H2O (l)
HCN (is a weak acid and therefore, insoluble) and dissociation write in ionic equation as follow:
HCN (aq) + NaOH (aq) --> NaCN (aq) + H2O (l)
H+ + CN- + Na+ + OH- --> Na+ + CN- + H2O (l)
H+ + OH- --> H2O (l) 

Acids: Acids are substances made of a hydroge
n ion and non-metal ions. They have the following properties:
They dissolve in water producing a hydrogen ion H+,
They have a sour taste,
Strong ones are corrosive,
Their pH is less than 7.

All acids must be in aqueous form to be called an acid. For example Hydrochloric acid is hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water. The most common acids are:
Hydrochloric acid HCl,
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4,
Nitric Acid HNO3,
Cirtric Acid,
Carbonic Acid H2CO3.

Bases: Bases are substances made of hydroxide OH- ions and a metal. Bases can be made of:
Metal hydroxide (metal ion & OH- ion)
Metal oxides
Metal carbonates (metal ion & CO32-)
Metal hydrogen carbonate (Bicarbonate)
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
Ammonium Carbonate ((NH4)2CO3)
Properties of bases:
Bitter taste
Soapy feel
Have pH’s above 7
Strong ones are corrosive

Some bases are water soluble and some bases are water insoluble. Water soluble bases are also called alkalis.
Like acids, alkalis' strength is determined by its ability to be ionized into metal and hydroxide OH- ions. Completely ionized alkalis are the strongest and partially ionized alkalis are the weakest. Ammonium hydroxide is one of the strongest alkalis while weak alkalis include the hydroxides of sodium, potassium and magnesium.

Salts: is a neutral ionic compound. Salts are one of the products of a reaction between an acid and a base. Salts are formed in reactions I n which the H+ ion from the acid is replaced by any other metal ion. Some salts are soluble in water and some are insoluble.

Soluble Salts:
All Nitrates
All halides EXCEPT AgCl and PbCl2
All sulfates EXCEPT CaSO4, BASO4, PbSO4
All group 1 metals salts
All ammonium salts

Insoluble Salts:
Silver and lead chlorides (AgCl & PbCl2)
Calcium, barium and lead sulphates (CaSO4, BASO4, PbSO4)
All carbonates EXCEPT group 1 metals and ammonium carbonates.

Resources of acid-base reactions:
Slideshows and PPT presentations:
Acid base and salt slide
Lacity college.ppt
reaction of neutralization quiz

Videos illustrate acids and alkaline molecule interactions:
Videos 1

PDF textbooks and handbooks wrote about acid base interactions:
CHEM 101 chapter 7: acid and base
Texas A&M university CHEM 101 sheet

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